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1.  “Acreage Legislated by Year.”, 2019,


2.  Berwyn, Bob. “Airplane Contrails’ Climate Impact to Triple by 2050, Study Says.” InsideClimate News, 28 June 2019,


3.  Buckley, Ralf. “Environmental Impacts of Recreation in Parks and Reserves.” SpringerLink,Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1 Jan. 1991,,fire%20frequency%2C%20vandalism%20and%20noise.


4.  Cohn, Jeffrey. “Wildlife Scores on Golf Courses.” BioScience, Volume 58, Issue 6, June 2008, Page 568,


5.  “Electricity Delivery and Its Environmental Impacts.” EPA, Environmental Protection Agency, 13 Mar. 2018,


6.  “Electrocutions.” U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service - Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, threats-to-birds/electrocutions.php.


7.  “Environmental Impacts of Transmission Lines.” Fingrid, Fingrid Oyj, 18 May 2017,


8.  Fadanelli, Nicholas. “Op-Ed: The Perennial Invasion of Crows.” The Michigan Daily, 13 Feb. 2019,


9.  Fitzner, Zach. “Agriculture Can Both Help and Hurt Annual Bird Migrations.”,


10.  “Great Lakes Piping Plover Population Status.” Glpipl,


11.  Hintzen, Katy. “A History of Wetlands in Michigan: Part 3.” MSU Extension, 20 Sept. 2018,


12.  Lee, George, et al. “Nine: The Bridge in the Environment.” Bridges: Their Engineering and Planning, State University of New York Press, 2015. Print.


13.  Malewitz, Jim. “Michigan was once a leader at recycling. Today, it’s the pits.” Bridge Magazine, 18 April 2018,


14.  Matheny, Keith, and Detroit Free Press. “Let There Be Starlight: Light Pollution a Glaring Problem.” WZZM, 5 Mar. 2017,


15.  Parker, Laura. “A whopping 91% of plastic isn’t recycled.” National Geographic, 20 December 2018, news/2017/07/plastic-produced-recycling-waste-ocean-trash-debris-environment/#close.


16.  Serba, John. “26 Michigan Species in Danger of Disappearing.” Mlive, 15 Feb. 2017,


17.  Settele, Josef, et al. “IPBES Guest Article: COVID-19 Stimulus Measures Must Save Lives, Protect Livelihoods, and Safeguard Nature to Reduce the Risk of Future Pandemics.” IPBES, 27 Apr. 2020,


18.  Slaughter, Kirinne. “Collision! Human Impacts on Animal Migration.” National Geographic Society, 13 Dec. 2019,


19.  Spacek, Steve. “The 2014 American State Litter Scorecard FINAL: USA’s Dirtiest & Cleanest States.”, Dirtiest_and_Cleanest_States_Includes_Statistics_and_Charts_The_2014_American_Society_for_Public_Administration_National_Conference.


20.  Stahl, Samantha. “Dams + Climate Change = Bad News.” Earth Law Center, 12 December 2017,


21.  Vandette, Kay. “Climate Change Is Creating More Challenges for Migratory Birds •”,


22.  Walker, Micah. “Michigan among Top States for Auto Accidents Involving Animals, Report Says.” Detroit Free Press, 29 Oct. 2019,


23.  “What Is Light Pollution?” Globe at Night, N.D.

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